phytoremediation plants

What is Phytoremediation? Is a bioremediation process that uses 
various types of plants to remove, transfer, stabilize, and/or destroy 
contaminants in the soil and groundwater. 

List of plants that are cleaning the soil and detoxing 
the body from heavy metals: 
(Drawings and research by Nathalie Hunter)

1- Urtica dioica L., Stinging nettle, Brandnetel

2-Filipendula Ulmaria L., Meadowsweet, Moerasspirea

3-Arctium Lappa L., greater burdock, kliswortel

4- Betula pendula Roth/ pubescens, birch, berk

5-Galium aparine L., Cleavers, Kleefkruid

6-Solidago virgaurea L.,European goldenrod or woundwort, Echte Guldenroede

7-Trifolium pratense L., Red clover, rode Klaver

8-Viola tricolor L., wild Pansy, Heartsease, rode Klaver

9-Allium ursinum L., Ramsons, Bear’s garlic, Daslook

10-Silybum marianum L., Milk thistle, Mariadistel

11-Taraxacum officinale Weber, Dandelion, Paardenbloem

12-Hordeum vulgare L., Barley, Gerst

13-Medicago sativa L., Alfalfa, Luzerne

14-Triticum aestivum L., Commom wheat, Tarwe (gras)

15- Populos, Poplar Tree

16- Salix, Willow

17- Miscanthus, Elephant Gras

18- Mayz, Maize, Corn

19-Helilanthus, Sun flower

 

1- Urtica dioica L., Stinging nettle, Brandnetel

Parts used: Herba Urticae dioicae, Radix Urticae dioicae Constituents: Chlorophyl (high), vitamins incl. Vit. C, serotonin, histamine, Minerals incl. iron, calcium, silica urtica-dioica

Soil Nettles grow on high nitrogen places. They absorb this nitrogen. You can make a fertiliser with it by filling a bucket with nettles and water. Cover it and turn daily, it will ferment and make an excellent natural plant feed. (good for growth of leaves) The growing plant increases the essential oil content of other nearby plants, thus making them more resistant to insect pests. Can be used as plant indicator as it accumulates Pb in its leaves on polluted soil.

Body: detoxes through the kidneys Blood tonic, hypoglycaemic, antiseptic, diuretic, expectorant, hypotensive, re-mineraliser, antirheumatic eliminates uric acid from the body. Detoxifies the blood. Stimulates the kidneys

Doses: three cups/day, 1 tsp. dried nettles on water that has boiled (not boiling anymore), step 7 min, for 2-3 weeks. Include fresh nettle tops in your diet. Use in soup, quiches, smoothies, as spinach.

If you use prescription drugs ask your doctor for possible interaction.

2-Filipendula Ulmaria L., Meadowsweet, Moerasspirea

Parts used: Flos Filipendulae ulmariae, Herba Filipendulae ulmariae (less)

Constituents: Flavanoids, essential oil: salicylaldehyde, methylsalicylate), phenol glycosides

filipendula ulmaria1

Soil: Filipendula ulmaria has been reported to extract Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in a field study on contaminated soil.

Body: detoxes through the kidneys antacid, stomachic, antiseptic (internal), hepatic, diaphoretic, diuretic.

Doses & recipes: 2-6 grams dried herb / daily. tea: 1 ts / cup water that has boiled, tincture 2 – 4 ml (40 – 80 drops, diluted in water)

Do not use if: Do not use when pregnant nor when taking anticoagulant medication.

3-Arctium Lappa L., greater burdock, kliswortel

Parts used: Radix Bardanae

Constituents: inulin, phenolic acids, tannin, mucilageArctium-lappa

Soil. Indicates and extracts Mg and Mn from the soil. Arctium lappa grows on contaminated soils, forcing out autochthonous species, as such they are bioindicators of the polluted areas.

Body: detoxes through the kidneys one of the most powerful and reliable blood tonics of herbalism, antibiotic action, hepatic, lymphatic, diaphoretic, diuretic, anti-tumour.

Doses & recipes: decoct (simmer 0,5 teaspoon / cup water for 5 min). trice daily. 2 à 3 weeks cure. tincture: 8 – 12 ml daily (160 – 240 drops in some water) use for short periods only.

Do not use if pregnant, breastfeeding, infant, under prescription medication.

4- Betula pendula Roth/ pubescens, birch, berk

Parts used: Folium Betulae, Cortex Betulae(less used), Gemmae Betulae, Succus Betulae Constituents: flavanoids, oils, tannin Betula-alba

Soil: Birch is a pioneer plant, it is extremely important in land restoration and part of the natural restoration cyclus. It is a great purifier for the soill. Betula pendula (Silver birch) trees growing on two contaminated sites were evaluated to assess their capacity to phytoscreen and phytoremediate chlorinated aliphatic compounds and heavy metals. Both locations are industrially-contaminated properties in central Sweden.

Body: detoxes through the kidney cholagogue, diuretic, improves the kidney’s function, removes toxines and pollution. antilithicum (prevents kidney stones), litholithicum (removes small kidney stones)

Doses & recipes: tea from the young dried leaves, trice daily. birchsap, taken from the tree during the full moon of march. 1 glass/day or 2 weeks. tea: 1 ts dried leaves/ cup boiling water, trice daily.

Do not use if under prescription medication due to its diuretic action.

5-Galium aparine L., Cleavers, Kleefkruid

Parts used: Herba Galiaea (juice) Constituents: flavanoids, bitters

galium-aparineSoil: Extracts Mg and P from the soil. This herb is safe.

Body: detoxes through the kidney lymphatic alternative and detoxifier, diuretic, adaptogen

Doses & recipes: fresh juice of the young plants, 1 tablespoon, trice daily, two weeks.

Alternatively juice can be kept by making a succus: Mix fresh juice with equal amount of fresh honey, and keep refrigerated. tea of dried herb, trice daily

6-Solidago virgaurea L.,European goldenrod or woundwort, Echte Guldenroede

Parts used: Herba Solidaginis Virgaureae Solidago-virgaurea

Constituents: flavanoids, phenolic glycosides, saponins

Soil: Solidago virgaurea is a reported hyperaccumulator to remove Al- Aluminium from the soil. Do not use if taking anti-aritmica, lithium, diuretics. Drink a lot of water when taking goldenrot.

Body: detoxes through the kidney antilithicum (prevents kidney stones), anticatharal, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic to mucous membranes and urinary system, detoxificans, diuretic, diaphoretic.

Doses & recipes: half – 2 grams daily. tea: half ts. in cup of boiling water. 1/day. tincture: 0,5 -1 ml / day (10 – 20 drops in a glass of water)

 

7-Trifolium pratense L., Red clover, rode Klaver

Parts used: Flos Trifolii, Folium cum flore Trifolii Constituents: flavanoids, isoflavons, resins, coumarins, minerals, vitamins. Trifolium-pratense

Soil: Accumulates Pb and Cu in ints leaves on polluted soil and can thus be uses as an indicator plant. Removal of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn from contaminated soil by Trifolium pratense. Hyperaccumulator.

Body: detoxes through the kidney deobstruent, antispasmodic, diuretic, sedative, expectorant, phyto-oestrogene, lowers cholesterol, antitrombotic, antioxidative. cleanses the lymphatic vessels, thus prevents spreading of cancer.

Doses & recipes: tea: 1 ts / cup boiling water 1 / day. tincture: 1 – 2 ts / day in water

Do not use if pregnant, lactant, history of hormon-related cancer, taking bloodthinners, not before a surgical operation.

8-Viola tricolor L., wild Pansy, Heartsease, rode Klaver

Parts used: Herba Violae tricoloris Constituents: mucilage, saponin, flavanoids Viola-tricolor

Soil: Viola tricolor typically grows in acidic soil. The uptake and distribution of arsenic (As) and some heavy metals was determined in three Viola endemic species from Asoverloaded soil in an abandoned mine at Alchar, Republic of Macedonia.

Body: detoxes through the kidney anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, expectorant, diuretic, depurative, laxative, rich in zinc, anti-allergic, anti-acne.

Doses & recipes: average doses 2 – 4 gr / day. trice daily. mainly as teas made with fresh or dried herb.

 

If you use prescription drugs ask your doctor for possible interaction. Do not use fresh flowers for children.

9-Allium ursinum L., Ramsons, Bear’s garlic, Daslook

Parts used: Herba Allii ursini, Bulbus allii ursini (less) Constituents: alliine, flavanoids

Soil: when you find allium ursinum in the wild it is an indicator this is an ancient woodland. Soil polluted with Al will inhibit Allium ursine growth. Alium-ursinum

Body: detoxes the body through the liver. depurative, cholertitic, antiseptic, carminative, digestive, anti-atherosclerotic

Doses & recipes: eat raw, in salads, pestos, on quiches, sandwiches, soup. macerate in olive oil during 1 month, then sieve to make great bear’s oil. the bulb can also be eaten when the plant is dormant (july-jan) tea, tincture: 2 ml (40 drops) trice / day

If you use prescription drugs ask your doctor for possible interaction. Do not confuse with the deadly Convallaria majalis (Lily of the valley)!

10-Silybum marianum L., Milk thistle, Mariadistel

silybum-marianumParts used: Fructus Silybae mariae (the seeds), Herba Silybae (less) Constituents: silymarin and other flavo-lignans

Soil: On soils polluted with heavy metals biodiversity diminishes strongly and Silybum marianum grows spontaneously and can hence be considered as an indicator plant and useful in phytoremediation.

Soil: On soils polluted with heavy metals biodiversity diminishes strongly and Silybum marianum grows spontaneously and can hence be considered as an indicator plant and useful in phytoremediation.

Body: detoxes the body through the liver. one of the best liver remedies. antihepatotoxicum, bitter tonic, cholagogue for promoting flow of bile up to 60 % in liver disorders, choleritic. Liver protector, detoxifier, gall bladder protective. Restores damage caused by environmental poisons.

Doses & recipes: tea: quarter to half teaspoon seeds to cup of boiling water trice daily. tincture: 0,5 – 1,5 ml (10- 30 drops) in water.

 

If you use prescription drugs ask your doctor for possible interaction.

11-Taraxacum officinale Weber, Dandelion, Paardenbloem

Parts used: Radix taraxaci cum herba (april- may), Radix taraxaci (autumn), Folium taraxaci (spring) Constituents: bitTaraxacum-officinaleters, minerals, flavonoids, chlorophyl

Soil: Dandelion is a reported indicator plant for mercury pollution

Body: detoxes the body through the liver. Choleritic, cholagogue, powerfull diuretic, bitter tonic, pancreatic regulator, urinary antiseptic, detoxicant.

Doses & recipes: tea: 3 – 4 ts / cup boiling water. decoct of the root. tincture: 5 – 10 ml (1 – 2 ts) daily Young leaves used in spring in salads.

If you use prescription drugs ask your doctor for possible interaction.

12-Hordeum vulgare L., Barley, Gerst

Parts used: Fructus Hordei geminatus, For detox only the grass. Constituents: antioxidans, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes and chlorophyll. Hordeum-vulgare

Soil: Phytoextraction of Hg from soil.

Body: Barley grass juice helps to remove pollution and heavy metals from the body. nutricious, tonic, vitaliser, detoxifans, depurative, alkaniser, digestive, mild diuretic. Chlorofyl binds heavy metals, PCB’s, dioxins, residues from pesticides and helps the evacuation of the body through bowels and urine. Helps to restore DNA through P4D1.

Doses & recipes: Grow for 20-30 cm then cut, and juice. juice of 100 gr grass or 30 ml freshly juiced organic barley grass. (2 tablespoons)

If taking insuline, blood sugar level lowering medication or blood thinners, take advice with your doctor for dosage. Do not use during breastfeeding. The grass juice contains no gluten. Safe for coeliac.

13-Medicago sativa L., Alfalfa, Luzerne

Parts used: Folium Medicago sativae, , Herba Medicago sativae, Semen Medicago sativae (germinated)

Constituents: vitamins, amino acids, saponins, medicago sativa

Soil: makes very deep roots, restores the capillarity of clogged soils. Brings nitrogen to the soil. Medical sativa affects the fate of PCBs in soil by providing the necessary environment for their biodegradation (greater number of microorganisms, exudation of co-metabolic substrates, enzymes and providing relatively anoxic pockets).

Body: Alfalfa germs help to remove pollution and heavy metals from the body. mild diuretic, depurative (blood cleanser), detoxing through a.o. the chlorophyl that chelates heavy metals as mercury, lead and cadmium. This also works for PCB’s and other toxins. stimulans, remineraliser, nutricious, lowers cholesterol.

Doses & recipes: use sprouted seeds on salads, soups, sandwiches and in smoothies.

Not for pregnant woman. Do not use if you take blood thinners or are going to have surgery.

14-Triticum aestivum L., commom wheat, Tarwe (gras)

Parts used: Fructus tritici germinatus (grass) Constituents: chlorophyl, vitamines, enzymes a.o. SOD (superoxidedismutase), P4D1 Triticum-aestivum

Soil: Wheat has been reported to extract Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn, Fe, Ni, Mn, and Pb from the soil. Phytoextraction of Hg from soil.

Body: Wheat grass juice help to remove pollution and heavy metals from the body. nutricious, tonic, strong antioxidans, detoxificans, depurative. Chlorofyl binds heavy metals, PCB’s, dioxins, residues from pesticides and helps the evacuation of the body through bowels and urine. Helps to restore DNA through P4D1.

Doses & recipes: Grow for 20-30 cm then cut, and juice.

juice of 100 gr grass or 30 ml freshly juiced organic barley grass. (2 tablespoons)If taking insuline, blood sugar level lowering medication or blood thinners, take advice with your doctor for dosage. Do not use during breastfeeding. The grass juice contains no gluten. Safe for coeliac.

 

19- Powerful air purifiers to use in your home, which are able to eliminate chemicals, mainly used in adhesives, products for the treatment of wood, varnish, paint, cleaning products, deodorizers and smoke:

Peace lilies, Spider Plant, aloe vera, Sword fern, Calathea, Sansevieria

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